American Indian Solutions to Environmental Challenges

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Meet the People

The Lummi refer to themselves as the Lhaq’temish, or People of the Sea. For centuries, their culture and survival have depended on the annual migrations of salmon.

Key Terms

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    Bureau of Indian Affairs – as provided by the constitution of the United States, treaties, court decisions and federal statutes, the government agency that provides services directly to federally recognized tribes.

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    Historic ruling issued by federal judge George Boldt in 1974 upholding the treaty-based rights of Washington’s Indian tribes to fish in accustomed places. The Boldt Decision assigned half of the annual catch to treaty tribes and limited fishing by non-Indians.

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    A tool consisting of a large metal hook with a handle or pole, used to pull in large fish.

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    An area of land reserved in treaty negotiations for the exclusive use of an Indian tribe.

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Explore: Territory Maps

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Try These Questions

How did the Lummi use the many cedar trees on their lands to meet their needs?
Read Article 5 of the Treaty of Point Elliott, then answer this question:
What rights does the treaty article guarantee to the Lummi?
Read the text to the Lummi national anthem. What does the anthem tell you about Lummi culture?

Take Notes for Story Project

What have you learned about this tribe? What makes the place they live in special to them?

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Why are the people so concerned about the environmental problem in their community?

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