Bureau of Indian Affairs – as provided by the constitution of the United States,
treaties, court decisions and federal statutes, the government agency that provides
services directly to federally recognized tribes.
Historic ruling issued by federal judge George Boldt in 1974 upholding the
treaty-based rights of Washington’s Indian tribes to fish in accustomed places.
The Boldt Decision assigned half of the annual catch to treaty tribes and limited
fishing by non-Indians.
A tool consisting of a large metal hook with a handle or pole, used to pull in large fish.
An area of land reserved in treaty negotiations for the exclusive use of an Indian tribe.
The Lummi used the cedar tree extensively. As Felix Solomon said in the video,
“There was not a place to go buy your stuff at. And you couldn’t buy your ropes or your
gear.... You made everything.”
Under the Treaty of Point Elliott, the Lummi can continue to fish in their usual and accustomed
places, even off the reservation. They have had to defend this
right. See “Boldt Decision” in Key Terms.
Like any national anthem, the Lummi National Anthem demonstrates nationhood, unity, and pride.
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Puget Sound — home to the Lummi and other Northwest Coast American Indians. 2010
“Well, we have fished for thousands and thousands of years, and also salmon
is a main staple of our diet and always has been and is still very important.”
Five different species of salmon were once common in Lummi waters. 2007
“The earth provided all of our needs: food, clothing, shelter. All of those things
came from nature.”
Cedar trees provided tools, shelter, clothing and even medicines. 2010
“And you couldn’t buy your ropes or your gear. You made it. You made your boats.
You made everything.”
Shovel-nose canoes were used for travel and fishing by the Lummis. 1880-1910
“Before the white man came, there was no border....
We fished all through Puget Sound, into Canada. We followed the fish.”
The Lummi People have survived on salmon for many generations — Lummi village. 1895
“Back when we first got our treaty, the BIA [U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs]
tried to make us into farmers, but they couldn’t do it. We live off the
sea, because we are a fishing tribe.”
Official seal of the Lummi Nation.